How can international law be effectively enforced? Difficulties in enforcement have caused many to question whether international law is really "law," yet the techniques for enforcing international law are more diverse and sophisticated than is generally appreciated. The end of the Cold War has brought about new opportunities and prospects for enforcing international law, through the United Nations and otherwise. Among the issues examined in the seminar are decentralized enforcement through reciprocity and counter-measures, economic sanctions, enforcement through national tribunals, multilateral enforcement through the United Nations Security Council and other international organs and prospects for developing police and military capabilities. The seminar examines these issues in their application to such contemporary problems as human rights, war crimes, arms control, trade, and the environment.