Climate Change Laws of Brazil
Status under International Climate Change Law
- UNFCCC: signature (4 Jun 1992) and ratification (28 Feb 1994)
- KP: signature (29 Apr 1998) and ratification (23 Aug 2002)
Quantified emission limitation or reduction commitment: na
- Vienna Convention: signature and ratification (18 Mar 1990)
- Montreal Protocol: signature and ratification (19 Mar 1990)
- Cancun Agreement/2020 Pledge: Reduce absolute emissions from 36.1 to 38.9 percent relative to business as usual
Federal Laws on Climate Change
Forests and Land Use
- Forest Code (Law No. 12651) 18 October 2012 (Portuguese) creates standards for Permanent Protected Areas, regulates economic activities in forests, and restricts deforestation requiring information to be tracked in a “Rural Environmental Register.”
- Program in Support of Environmental Conservation and Program for the Promotion of Rural Productive Activity (Law No. 12512/2011) 14 October 2011 (Portuguese) creates “Green Allowance,” a payment system for people engaged in conservation activities, and a cash-transfer policy that encourages environmental and organizational capacity-building for rural families living in extreme poverty.
- Ecological-Economic Macro-zoning of the Legal Amazon (Decree No. 7378/2010) 1 December 2010 (Portuguese) establishes the Legal Amazon’s MacroZEE which proposes production strategies and environmental management and creates public monitoring evaluations.
- Amazon Fund (Decree No. 6527/2008) 1 August 2008 (Portuguese) established under the Brazilian Development Bank manages donation-based funds for projects in the Amazon guided by a Supervisory Committee composed of technical experts.
- Management of Public Forests, Brazilian Forest Service and National Fund for Forest Development (Law No. 11284) 2 March 2006 (Portuguese) mandates forest management principles based on REDD+ policies, establishes the Brazilian Forest Service, and sets up the National Fund for Forest Development.
- National System of Conservation Units (Federal Law No. 9985/2000, Federal Decree No. 4340/2001) 18 July 2000, 22 August 2002 (Portuguese) forms a National System of Nature Conservation Units, with criteria and restrictions for the protection and sustainable use of conservation areas.
- National Policy on Solid Residues (Law No. 12305/2010) 2 August 2010 (Portuguese) encourages the reduction of solid waste, sewage, and effluents and the recycling of and reuse of trash to improve sanitary conditions and reduce GHG emissions. It creates standards for the federal, state and municipal governments.
Local, State, and Regional Legislation and Initiatives
- Baracui, P.L., Moura, T.F., Frolich, M.F. and Sabbag, B.K., 2009. Brazil: Recent Developments in Environmental Law. Barbosa, Mussinch and Aragão Advogados. Mondaq website [URL: http://www.mondaq.com/article.asp?articleid=74154]. Accessed 7 April 2014.
- Cortez, H., 2010. Regulamentação de política nacional sobre mudança climática deve começar a sair em agosto. Ecodebate website [in Portuguese] [URL: http://www.ecodebate.com.br/2010/05/06/regulamentacao-de-politica-nacional-sobre-mudanca-climatica-deve-comecar-a-sair-em-agosto/]. Accessed 7 April 2014.
- International Energy Agency, 2011. Relation with Member Countries –Brazil. International Energy Agency website [URL: http://www.iea.org/country/m_country.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=BR]. Accessed 7 April 2014.
- Sant’Anna, L.F.H., Spitzeck, M.H., Rabinovici, J., n.d. Environment – Brazil. Latin Lawyers website [URL: http://www.latinlawyer.com/reference/article/40585/brazil/]. Accessed 9 April 2014.
- Yanko Marcius De Alencar Xavier & Pedro Lucas De Moura Soares, Brazil, in CLIMATE CHANGE LIABILITY, 606-26 (Richard Lord et al. eds., Cambridge University Press 2011)
Updated as of: April 1, 2014
Summaries of legislation compiled from Terry Townsend et al., The GLOBE Climate Legislation Study (3d ed. 2013).