Climate Change Laws of the Netherlands
Netherlands Country Profile (World Bank)
Status under International Climate Change Law
- UNFCCC: signature (June 4, 1992) and ratification (December 20, 1993)
- KP: signature (April 29, 1998) and ratification (May 31, 2002)
- Quantified emission limitation or reduction commitment: - 6%
- Vienna Convention: signature (March 22, 1985) and ratification (September 28, 1988)
- Montreal Protocol: signature (September 16, 1987) and ratification (December 16, 1988)
- LRTAP: signature (November 13, 1979) and ratification (July 5, 1982)
- Energy Charter: signature (December 17, 1994) and ratification (December 16, 1997)
- Energy Efficiency Protocol: signature (December 17, 1994) and ratification (December 16, 1997)
- Espoo Convention: signature (February 25, 1991) and ratification (February 28, 1995)
- 2030 Commitment: 40% domestic reduction in emissions below 1990 levels by 2030, to be fulfilled jointly by European Union member states (14% reduction in domestic emissions below 2005 levels by 2020, in accordance with Decision No. 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament and Council)
- INDC summary - includes LULUCF and gases covered (Center for Climate and Energy Solutions 2015)
- INDC summary - includes adaptation and conditions for implementation (Climate Policy Observer 2016)
National Laws on Climate Change
Forests and Land Use
Environmental Impact Assessment
National Plans, Programs and Initiatives
Local and Regional Legislation and Initiatives
- Climate change - The Netherlands (Climate Change Post)
- The Netherlands Climate change impacts on water systems (OECD Secretariat) (2013)
- The Netherlands (Europe’s Energy Portal)
- EU Country Profile (Climate Action Tracker) (2015)
- The effects of Climate Change in the Netherlands: 2012 (W. Ligtvoet et al., PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency) (2013)
- E.H.P. Brans et al, Naar aansprakelijkheid voor (de gevolgen van) klimaatverandering?, Den Haag: Boom Juridische Uitgevers (2012) (in Dutch).
- M. Peeters, Climate Law in The Netherlands: The Search towards a National Legislative Framework for a Global Problem, 14 Electronic Journal of Comparative Law (2010).
- Handboek Implementatie milieubeleid EU in Nederland (in Dutch).
- M.G.W.M. Peeters & H.D. van Asselt, Klimaatwetgeving in Nederland. Stand van zaken anno 2010, STEM (2010) (in Dutch)
- P.P.J. Driessen et al., Beleids-en rechtswetenschappelijke aspecten van klimaatadaptatie, Den Haag: Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu (2011) (in Dutch).
- P. P. J. Driessen, F. De Pater & T. Spit (eds.), Klimaatverandering en ruimtelijke ordening: verkenning van onderzoeksthema’s, Wageningen: Programmabureau Klimaat voor Ruimte (2008) (in Dutch).
SCCCL thanks Sam Nierop for his assistance in preparing this summary.
Updated as of: May 8, 2016